COOPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES


PARAPHRASE PASSPORT
This cooperative learning technique is relevant to improving students’ ability on paraphrasing other people’s opinion.
Suggested Procedure
1. Step 1: Students are set in big circle.
2. Step 2: Start from the first person gives his view. For example: I like mangoes.
3. Step 3: Next to the first person paraphrases it. For example: You think mangoes are delicious.
4. Step 4: The original speaker checks the paraphrase. For example: Good paraphrase.
5. Step 5: The other person gives his views, and the process continue.

TALKING CHIPS
Each person starts with three chips. Every time they speak, they give up one chip. When they have no more chips, they cannot speak again—except to ask questions—until everyone has used all their chips.

ONE STAY, TWO STRAY
1. Step 1: Group of 3 does a task.
2. Step 2: One member Stays, while the other two Stray to find out what other groups have.
3. Step 3: The Strayers return to their original group and tell about what they observed.

STAD AND TGT
(Slavin, 1990)
STAD (Student Teams-Achievement Divisions)
1. Step 1
The teacher presents a lesson via lecture, a textbook, etc.
2. Step 2
Heterogeneous teams of four or five students study together in preparation for individually taking a quiz on the material presented by the teacher. Teams often choose their names.
3. Step 3
Students take the quiz.
4. Step 4
Each student’s score on the quiz and their average on past quizzes are used to calculate how many points the student earned for their team. The points of all team members are summed, and the average calculated for each team to count for team rewards such as certificates. These points are completely separate from grades which are based solely on the individual’s quiz score, without reference to whether they have improved or how well their teammates did.

TGT (TEAMS-GAMES-TOURNAMENT)
Step 1 and 2 are the same as in STAD. However, rather than taking quizzes on the material presented by the teacher, students take part in academic tournaments in order to win points for the teams.
1. Step 1
The teacher presents a lesson via lecture, a textbook, etc.
2. Heterogeneous teams of four or five students study together in preparation for individually taking a quiz on the material presented by the teacher. Teams often choose their names.
3. Step 3
Students leave their teams and go to tournament tables. At each table are three students from different teams. Each student is roughly similar in terms of achievement. A set of cards is at the table. Each card has one question based on the teacher’s presentation.
4. Step 4
At the tournament tables, students take turns reading aloud and trying to answer the questions on the cards. The other can challenges answers if they think they are wrong. The correct answer is on the back of the card. The student who answers the most card correctly earns 60 points for their teams, with 40 for the second place, and 20 for third. In the event of a tie, students get the average number of points for the places (first, second, or third) involved. For example, if there is a tie for first and second, they each get 50 points.
5. Step 5
Students return to their teams and calculate the average number of points each person earned.
NOTE:
Two points are important to keep in mind while using STAD or TGT.
1. Students are assigned by teachers to teams so that the teams are heterogenous in terms of achievement, sex, and ethnicity. While students are mixed in terms of achievement, they have an equal chance of contributing points to their teams. This is because in STAD students earn points for their teams based not only on their quiz scores but also on their past average. In TGT students are at tournament tables with others who are similar in terms of achievement.
2. Teams are not competing against each other. For example, in STAD everyone can do well on the quiz, and, therefore, all teams can be Super Teams. This is unlike traditional sports in which there is only one champion.

Circle the Sage
First the teacher polls the class to see which students have a special knowledge to share. For example the teacher may ask who in the class was able to solve a difficult math homework question, who had visited Mexico, who knows the chemical reactions involved in how salting the streets help dissipate snow. Those students (the sages) stand and spread out in the room. The teacher then has the rest of the classmates each surround a sage, with no two members of the same team going to the same sage. The sage explains what they know while the classmates listen, ask questions, and take notes. All students then return to their teams. Each in turn, explains what they learned. Because each one has gone to a different sage, they compare notes. If there is disagreement, they stand up as a team. Finally, the disagreements are aired and resolved.

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