The communication really assists us to interact with others. The principle of communication is the understanding about what we interacting are. To support the understanding we have to know the meaning. One of study which learns meaning is semantics.
Semantics is the study of meaning in language. Yule (2008:100) stated that “Linguistic semantics deals with the conventional meaning conveyed by the use words, phrases, and sentences of a language”. It is fact that meaning is a part of language, but this definition has not been clearly delineated and given treatment in the study of language until very recently. According to what mostly accepted by linguistics theory, meanings are idea or concepts that can be transferred from the mind of the speaker to the mind of the hearer by embodying them in the form of one language or another (Ahmadin, 2008:16).
Kempson (1989:11) explained three main ways in which linguist and philosophers have attempted to construct explanations of meaning in natural language: (a) by defining the nature of word meaning, (b) by defining the nature of sentence meaning, and (c) by explaining the process of communication. In the first place, as the construct in which sentence meaning and communication can be explained. Second, it is sentence meaning in which systematic contribution constructs sentence meaning. Third, it is the construct in which sentence and words are used in communication.
“Linguists have contributed primary to the study of the core meaning or the sense of individual words” (Ahmadin, 2008:19). Words are sometimes called lexical items or lexeme. Words meaning might be characterized not only in term of its component features, but also in term of its relationship to other words. This approach is called as lexical relation (Yule, 2008:104).
The branch of semantic that deals with word meaning is called lexical semantics. Furthermore, meaning may be categorized into three levels; they are lexical meaning, sentential meaning or utterance meaning and discoursal meaning (Ahmadin, 2008:17). Lexical meaning covers some discussion about denotation, connotation, ambiguity, synonymy, hyponymy, polysemy, homophony, and homonymy.
In this study, writer would like to take lexical meaning as the concept of analysis. This paper provides the analysis of lexical meaning in the song of Westlife under the title of The Queen of My Hearth.
This part is devoted to discuss lexical meaning that found from the song. They include the song lyric of “The Queen of My Heart” and the lexical meaning composition in the song.
Lexical meaning covers some discussion about denotation, connotation, ambiguity, synonymy, hyponymy, polysemy, homophony, and homonymy. Each item is discussed as the following.
Two or more words with very closely related meanings are called synonyms (Yule, 2008:104). Words that have the same values for all semantic features or expression with the same meaning are synonymous (Ahmadin, 2008:25). For examples, big/large, broad/wide, buy/purchase, cab/taxi, freedom/liberty.
Two forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms (Yule, 2008:104). Ahmadin (2008:26) defined that antonyms are words which are in the same sense opposite in meaning. Some common examples are the pairs: alive/dead, big/small, fast/slow, happy/sad, hot/cold, long/short, male/female.
When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as hyponymy (Yule, 2008:105). For eaxample Poodle is the hyponym of Dog, Dog and Horse are the hyponym of Animal, Pine is the hyponym of Tree. So a word whose meaning contains the entire meaning of other words is called a hyponymy which is known as the superordinate (Ahmadin, 2008:28).
2.4 Denotation and Connotation
Denotation is the meaning of a word that refers to the real world. This is often the kind of definition that is given in dictionary (Ahmadin, 2008:20).
2.5 Song Lyric of Westlife
“The Queen of My Heart”
So here we stand in our secret place
Where the sound of the crowd is so far away
You take my hand, and it feels like home
We both understand, it’s where we belong
So how do I say, do I say goodbye?
We both have our dreams, we both wanna fly
So let’s take tonight, to carry us through
The lonely times
I’ll always look back as I walk away
This memory will last for eternity
And all of our tears will be lost in the rain
When I find my way back to your arms again
But until that day you know you are
The queen of my heart, the queen of my heart
So let’s take tonight and never let go
While dancing we’ll kiss, like there’s no tomorrow
As the stars sparkle down, like a diamond ring
I’ll treasure this moment till we meet again
But no matter how far
Or where you may be
I just close my eyes
And you’re in my dreams
And there you will be until we meet
You’re the queen of my heart
No matter how many years it takes
I’ll do it all to you, oh yeah
Oh yes you are
The queen of my heart
2.6 The Lexical Meaning Composition in The Song
Lexical meaning that found covers some discussion about denotation, connotation, ambiguity, synonymy, hyponymy, polysemy, homophony, and homonymy.
Denotation is the meaning of word which is primarily refers to the real world and this is often the definition that is given in dictionary. Actually, almost all the words in this song can be classified as denotation. But here writer takes two examples. [QUEEN] has meaning as a female sovereign who is the official ruler or head of state. Besides it has meaning as a woman or thing personified as a woman considered the best or most important of her kind. [HEART] has meaning as the hollow muscular organ in vertebrates whose contractions propel the blood through the circulatory system and it also has meaning as emotional mood or disposition.
Connotation arises as words become related with certain characteristic of item to which they refer, or the association of positive or negative feeling to which they evokes, which may or may not be indicated in the dictionary definition.
A word or a sentence is ambiguous if it can be understood or interpreted in more than one way (Fromkin et.al, 1990). The different words having same form or pronunciation may cause ambiguity among listeners or readers who do not pay attention to their context carefully. Among different words having same form or pronunciation are: homonyms and homophones.
22.214.171.124 Homonyms (different words having the same form)
[BACK] in the lyric found ‘I will always look back’ and ‘I find my way back’. In the first lyric, [BACK] means memorizing all the things happened before while in the second lyric, [BACK] means the way become the same as the past event again.
126.96.36.199 Homophones (Sounds alike, Spelled Differently, Different Meaning)
Homophone is different words which are pronounced the same. the word [IT] and [TO] in the lyric ‘I’ll do it all to you’ has the same pronunciation with [EAT] and [TOO]. [IT] refers to a nonhuman, animal, plant, or inanimate thing, or sometimes to small baby, while [EAT] has meaning to take something into the mouth and swallow especially after biting and chewing. [TO] used to indicate the destination of the subject or object of an action, while [TOO] closest in meaning with as well, in addition, also. Both word pronounced the same but they have different form.
The word antonym derives from the Greek root anti- (‘opposite’) and denotes opposition in meaning. In contrast to synonym and hyponym, antonym is a binary relationship that can characterize a relationship between only two words at a time. Terms A and B are antonym if,when A describe a referent, B cannot describe the same referent, and vice versa. The antonyms found in these song lyrics are: [FAR] from a great distance >< [WELCOME] an expression of cordial greeting.
Two words which have the same sense known as synonymy. To address the notion of synonymy more formally, we can say that the term A is synonymous with term B if every referent of A is a referent of B. for example from this analysis ‘where the sound of the crowd is so far away’, the word [SOUND] is synonymy with [VOICE]. Both words has the same sense which is mean the sound made by the vibration of the vocal cords, especially when modified by the resonant effect of the tongue and mouth.
A word that has meaning contains the entire meaning of other words is known as hyponymy which also called as the superordinate. For example, from the lyric analysis, [QUEEN] is hyponymy of woman because it contains all the features of woman as part of its specification.
In conclusion, the writer found that lexical meaning that exist in the song lyric “The Queen of My Heart’ sung by Westlife are denotation, connotation, ambiguity; homonyms and homophones, synonymy, antonym, and hyponymy. All the proofs are presented in each chapter. Those kind of lexical meanings abridge us to understand the lyric of ‘The Queen of My Heart’.
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