Code switching and Code mixing
• Code switching occurs when speakers make use of the grammar and lexicon of two languages when producing utterances. For example: “jangan khawatir, DON’T WORRY BE HAPPY, BRO!”
• There are three points of view discussing about this switching:
o Sociolinguistic point of view: why do people switch between languages?
o Psycholinguistic point of view: what aspect of their language capacity enable them to switch?
o Lingusitic point of view: how do we know that they are really switching and have not simply introduced an element from another language into their language system?
• There are three types of switches:
o Tag-switches involve an exclamation, a tag, or a parenthetical in another language than the rest of the sentence. “HI LADIES! Malam ini saya akan membuat kalian bahagia”.
o Intra-sentential switches occur in the middle of a sentence, an in “aduh, udara disini REALLY HOT”. This type of intimate switching is often called code mixing.
o Inter-sentential switches occur between sentences, as their name indicates.

Why do people switch between languages? (sociolinguistic discussion)
• Using functional model suggested, switching can be said to have the following functions:
o Referential function: it is caused by lack of knowledge of one language or lack of facility in that language on a certain object.
o Directive function: it involves the hearer directly. it occurs because the speaker wants to include a person more by using her or his language, or the speaker wants to exclude certain persons present from a portion of the conversation.
o Expressive function: it occurs when the speaker emphazises a mixed identity through the use of two languages in the same discourse.
o Phatic function or metaphorical function: it occurs when the speaker wants to indicate change in tone of conversation.
o Metalinguistic function: it is used to comment directly or indirectly on the languages involved.
o Poetic function: it involves switched puns, jokes, etc.

Where in the sentence is code mixing possible? (lingusitic discussion)
• This discussion is isolated from the social variables
• It focuses on one of the types of code switching, which switching occurs in the middle of the sentence, called code mixing.
• Code mixing is different from morphological case, borrowing.
• The possible occurance of code mixing is explained differently in three stages:
• Particular grammatical constraints
o Between a head noun and a relative clause
o Between a subject and a predicate in a copular constraction
o Subject and object pronous must be in the same language as the main verb
o An auxiliary and a main verb, or a main verb and an infinitive must be in the same languag
o It is difficult to switch inside a prepositional phrase
o It is impossible to switch between the article and the noun
• Universal constraints
o Universal constraints limit the switching to happen by linearity and dependency.
o Linearity constraints generally state that switching from one language to another in the middle of a sentence is only possible if the linear order of sentences in both language is preserved.
o For example:
Eng: she sees the house  sp: ve la casa, in the example, we can switch the woed “sees” with “ve” because both sentences have linear order.
o Dependency constraints state that there cannot be a switch between two elements if they are lexically dependent on each other.
• Relativized constraints: the search for neutrality
o It was resulted from the interaction of universal principles and aspects particular to each code mixing situation.
o It arose along the empirical level: the extension of code mixing studies to mixing involving non-Indo-European languages, and theoretical level: there is a widening of the scope of the concept of neutrality.
o There are two general kinds of neutrality: linear neutrality and grammatical independent.
o Linear neutrality involves a parallel word order of the two languages around the switch point.
o Grammatical independence is the absence of strong syntagmatic links across switch point.


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